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I accept. Polski English Login or register account. Abstract As the development of online commercial transactions, the transactions that involve small amount of money are becoming popular.
However, the existing micropayment systems are either not efficient enough for micropayment or too complicated and expensive for extensive application.
A new credit based micropayment scheme is proposed in this paper. With only reasonable security performance, the efficiency of the scheme gets higher and the implementation is much cheaper, thus it is very suitable for extensive application.
With reference to the mature credit card system, a credit mechanism was built in this scheme to achieve the better performance and lower cost.
On the other hand, good practicability and strict anonymity are provided. Authors Close. Assign yourself or invite other person as author.
It allow to create list of users contirbution. Assignment does not change access privileges to resource content. Wrong email address. You're going to remove this assignment.
Are you sure? Yes No. Only steps 1 and 3 require Ethereum transactions, step 2 means that the sender transmits a cryptographically signed message to the recipient via off chain methods e.
This means only two transactions are required to support any number of transfers. Bob is guaranteed to receive their funds because the smart contract escrows the Ether and honours a valid signed message.
The smart contract also enforces a timeout, so Alice is guaranteed to eventually recover their funds even if the recipient refuses to close the channel.
It is up to the participants in a payment channel to decide how long to keep it open. To open the payment channel, Alice deploys the smart contract, attaching the Ether to be escrowed and specifying the intended recipient and a maximum duration for the channel to exist.
This is the function SimplePaymentChannel in the contract, at the end of this section. Alice makes payments by sending signed messages to Bob.
This step is performed entirely outside of the Ethereum network. Messages are cryptographically signed by the sender and then transmitted directly to the recipient.
A payment channel is closed just once, at the end of a series of transfers. Because of this, only one of the messages sent is redeemed.
This is why each message specifies a cumulative total amount of Ether owed, rather than the amount of the individual micropayment.
The recipient will naturally choose to redeem the most recent message because that is the one with the highest total. The nonce per-message is not needed anymore, because the smart contract only honors a single message.
The address of the smart contract is still used to prevent a message intended for one payment channel from being used for a different channel.
Closing the channel pays the recipient the Ether they are owed and destroys the contract, sending any remaining Ether back to Alice.
To close the channel, Bob needs to provide a message signed by Alice. The smart contract must verify that the message contains a valid signature from the sender.
Only the payment channel recipient can call the close function, who naturally passes the most recent payment message because that message carries the highest total owed.
If the sender were allowed to call this function, they could provide a message with a lower amount and cheat the recipient out of what they are owed.
The function verifies the signed message matches the given parameters. If everything checks out, the recipient is sent their portion of the Ether, and the sender is sent the rest via a selfdestruct.
You can see the close function in the full contract. Bob can close the payment channel at any time, but if they fail to do so, Alice needs a way to recover their escrowed funds.
An expiration time was set at the time of contract deployment. Once that time is reached, Alice can call claimTimeout to recover their funds.
You can see the claimTimeout function in the full contract. After this function is called, Bob can no longer receive any Ether, so it is important that Bob closes the channel before the expiration is reached.
The function splitSignature does not use all security checks. Otherwise there is no guarantee that the recipient will be able to get paid in the end.
Solidity v0. Interaction beneficiary. Inactive ; seller. Created condition msg. The contract will work as follows: Alice deploys the ReceiverPays contract, attaching enough Ether to cover the payments that will be made.
Alice authorises a payment by signing a message with their private key. Alice sends the cryptographically signed message to Bob.
The message does not need to be kept secret explained later , and the mechanism for sending it does not matter.
Bob claims their payment by presenting the signed message to the smart contract, it verifies the authenticity of the message and then releases the funds.
The amount to be transferred. Protection against replay attacks. What is a Payment Channel? It involves three steps: Alice funds a smart contract with Ether.
Alice signs messages that specify how much of that Ether is owed to the recipient. This step is repeated for each payment.
Note Only steps 1 and 3 require Ethereum transactions, step 2 means that the sender transmits a cryptographically signed message to the recipient via off chain methods e.
The total amount of Ether that is owed the recipient so far. Note The function splitSignature does not use all security checks.
The recipient should verify each message using the following process: Verify that the contact address in the message matches the payment channel.
Verify that the new total is the expected amount. Verify that the new total does not exceed the amount of Ether escrowed.